Enalapril versus losartan for adults with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Aim

Both enalapril and losartan are effective and widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aimed to evaluate the benefits of enalapril and losartan in adults with CKD.

Methods

PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched, without language limitations, for randomized controlled trials (RCT), in which enalapril and losartan were compared in adults with CKD. Standard methods, consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, were used. Reviewer Manager software, ver. 5.2, was used for meta-analysis.

Results

Of 318 citations retrieved, 17 RCT (14 parallel-group and three cross-over) met our inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis for parallel RCT showed that the effects of enalapril and losartan on blood pressure, renal function and serum uric acid (UA) were similar. Meta-analysis indicated that patients taking enalapril had a higher risk of dry cough (risk ratio, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.11–7.48; P = 0.03). Sensitivity analysis showed good robustness of these findings.

Conclusion

Enalapril has similar effects to losartan on systemic blood pressure, renal function and serum UA in patients with CKD, but carries a higher risk of dry cough. Larger trials are required to evaluate the effects of these medications on clinical outcomes.

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