Different strategies are being tried to induce transplant tolerance in clinical settings; however, none of them are both safe and effective. Mesenchymal stem cells have been found to be potent immunomodulators and immunosuppressants. We discuss in this review different sources of mesenchymal stem cells and the potent role of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in induction of transplant tolerance including when to use them and how to use them for achieving the Utopian dream of transplant tolerance.SUMMARY AT A GLANCE
Transplantation tolerance which means stable graft function with absence of rejection episodes in spite of no immunosuppression requirement while maintaining third party immune response intact” is still not achieved in clinic. Tolerance has been tried to be induced by hematopoietic stem cells with the belief that chimerism resulting from stem cell transplantation will induce tolerance. Other workers believe that deletion of antibodies will lead to tolerance. This review describes mesenchymal stem cells and how they help in inducing tolerance.