Aortic dissection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A series of two cases and a review of the Literature

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Abstract

Aortic dissection (AD) is the most common life-threatening disease involving the aorta. It is rarely associated with systemic disorders such as Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), a genetic syndrome characterized by cystic degeneration of kidneys, possible presence of cysts in other organs and extra-renal manifestations, including cardiovascular disorders. We performed a systematic literature search focused on the occurrence of AD associated with ADPKD (25 cases identified), and reported two cases from our experience. We selected data on sex, age, family history of ADPKD and/or AD, habitus, hypertension, renal function, presence of hepatic/pancreatic/splenic cysts, clinical presentation of AD, AD type according to the Stanford classification, treatment and outcome. Furthermore we compared this dataset with the data of the overall population with AD from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Stanford A type AD was documented in 62% of patients. As expected, the initial manifestation of AD was most commonly chest and back pain (80%). The mean age of AD occurrence appears significantly reduced in ADPKD patients compared to the general population with AD (49 ± 12vs62 ± 14,P< 0.001). Of note, our analysis shows a remarkably higher frequency of hypertension (90%) compared to the overall AD population (75%), although not significantly (P=0.133). AD should be always ruled out in ADPKD subjects with chest and back pain symptoms, despite them being young and at lower risk. A careful preventive monitoring as well as an optimal blood pressure control may reduce the risk of AD and improve the outcome of these patients.

SUMMARY AT A GLANCE

Aortic dissection is rarely associated with ADPKD. In this study, the authors have performed a systematic review of the clinical characteristics of aortic dissection, and suggest that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain in patients with ADPKD.

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