Influence of pH and phosphate concentration on the phosphate binding capacity of five contemporary binders. An in vitro study

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Abstract

Aim

Hyperphosphataemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in end stage renal disease. Despite phosphate binder therapy, a large proportion of patients do not reach the treatment target. In five contemporary binders we explored the influence of pH and phosphate concentration on phosphate binding. This interaction could be of relevance in clinical practice.

Methods

Phosphate binding was quantified in vitro in 25 mL of purified water containing phosphate concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mM and baseline pH values of 3.0 or 6.0, with a binder over 6 h. Lanthanum carbonate, calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, calcium carbonate and sucroferric oxyhydroxide, 67 mg of each, were used. The experiments were performed in duplicate. The primary outcome was the difference in the amount of bound phosphate for each binder after 6 h in solutions at two different pH values. Secondary outcomes were the influence of phosphate concentration on phosphate binding, next to binding patterns and phosphate binder saturation.

Results and Conclusion

In this specific in vitro setting, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, calcium carbonate and sucroferric oxyhydroxide bound more phosphate in the solution with baseline pH of 3.0. Differences however were small except for lanthanum carbonate. Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate was most effective in a solution with baseline pH of 6.0. All phosphate binders bound more phosphate in solutions with higher concentrations of phosphate. Sevelamer carbonate, calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate and sucroferric oxyhydroxide bound most phosphate in the first hour and reached maximum binding capacity in less than 6 h.

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