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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than ˜200 nucleotides with little or no protein-coding capacity. There is evidence that the lncRNAs are involved in a variety of biological functions and are associated with human diseases. The aim of this study was to reveal any potential lncRNA regulatory mechanism in uremia.Blood samples were obtained from 20 uremic patients not on dialysis and 20 healthy volunteers. The genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was completed by microarray assay and validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analysis. Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were identified through fold-change filtering. Gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis were performed with the standard enrichment computation method. The relationship between lncRNAs and adjacent protein-coding genes was determined by complex transcriptional loci analysis.We identified thousands of lncRNAs and mRNA that were differentially expressed in uremic patients. Some lncRNAs are transcribed in complex loci with overlapping and antisense patterns relative to adjacent protein-coding genes. Differential expression of ZAP70 and BC133674 (ZAP70-ncRNA) was confirmed by RT-PCR.Some lncRNAs and their associated protein-coding genes are closely related and may be part of a potential regulatory mechanism of uremia, and lncRNAs will provide additional opportunities to advance our understanding of the basic biology of uremia.