Role of Nitric Oxide Synthases in Parkinson's Disease: A Review on the Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Polyphenols

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Natural polyphenols can exert protective action on a number of pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective effects of many polyphenols rely on their ability to permeate brain barrier and here directly scavenge pathological concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chelate transition metal ions. Importantly, polyphenols modulate neuroinflammation by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory genes and the level of intracellular antioxidants. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by several abnormalities including inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation and oxidative stress. There is considerable evidence showing that cellular oxidative damage occurring in PD might result also from the actions of altered production of nitric oxide (NO). Indeed, high levels of neuronal and inducible NO synthase (NOS) were found in substantia nigra of patients and animal models of PD. Here, we evaluate the involvement of NOS/NO in PD and explore the neuroprotective activity of natural polyphenol compounds in terms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action.

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