CYTOCHEMICAL procedures for the combined demonstration of astroglia, microglia, blood vessels and β-amyloid in the-human brain were developed. These multiple label experiments include the first adaptation of the digoxigenin-antidigoxigenin technique to immunocyto-chemistry by using digoxigenylated antibodies directed against the glial fibrillary acidic protein and its visualization in astrocytes with an antidigoxigenin—peroxidase conjugate and diaminobenzidine as chromogen. Furthermore, the specific labelling of microglial cells was per-formed with the novel enhanced polymer one-step staining technique, non-interfering with conventional detection systems. The demonstration of spatial relation-ships between glial and vascular components in normal tissue and their alterations, e.g. in Alzheimer's disease, might provide insights into the time course and localization of pathological events.