The motoneurones with axons in the common peroneal nerve (CPN) of the rat and monkey were examined using retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In both species, the CPN motoneurone pool was localized in the dorsolateral part of the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In the rat, the labelled motoneurones were located between the L3 and L6 spinal segments whereas in the monkey, they extended from the caudal end of L4 to the L6 spinal segments. In both species the majority of the labelled neurones were located within the L5 segment. The mean number of the CPN motoneurones in the rat and monkey was 458 and 1148, respectively. A bimodal size distribution of motoneurones was found in both species.