WE simultaneously measured extracellular glutamate ([Glu]e) elevation and local CBF using a real-time monitoring method and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively, in the rat striatum in a modified graded global ischemia model. Ischemic brain temperatures were kept at 32°C, 37°C and 39°C. Three distinct types of intraischemic [Glu]e elevation, reflecting mild, moderate and massive glutamate release, were observed. Brain temperature plays an important role in determining CBF thresholds for each of the three types of [Glu]e elevation. CBF thresholds for [Glu]e elevations shifted to a lower level range as brain temperature was reduced. In mild or moderate ischemia, there is no exposure to sustained [Glu]e elevation, which is seen only in relatively severe ischemia characterized by biphasic [Glu]e elevation.