POSTNATAL changes in the fiber distribution and release of 5–HT in the somatosensory cortex (Sm) of methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced microencephalic rats were studied. A transient accumulation of serotonergic fibers was observed in the Sm of the control and MAM rats in the first 2 weeks following birth. However, the density of serotonergic fibers was higher in the MAM rats than in the controls, and the distribution pattern of serotonergic fibers was more extensive in the MAM rats. The microdialysis indicated a high basal level and a delayed K+-evoked 5-HT release in the Sm of MAM rats on postnatal day 10. The present results suggest morphological and functional alterations of serotonergic fibers in the Sm of MAM rats during the critical period of cortical formation.