Multipotent neural precursors have been suggested to exist in many parts of the adult mammalian brain. In the present study, we characterized the neurogenic potential in the piriform cortex of adult rats. Proliferation rates as detected by 5′-bromodeoxyuridine-labeling proved to be low when compared with the major neurogenic brain regions (i.e. the hippocampus and the subventricular zone). 5′-Bromodeoxyuridine/NeuN-labeling in accordance with doublecortin, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, and TUC-4-labeling indicated that neuronal differentiation of newborn cells occurs predominantly in layer II of the piriform cortex. Many of the cells exhibited a pyramidal cell morphology. The lack of 5′-bromodeoxyuridine/NeuN-labeled cells 12 weeks after 5′-bromodeoxyuridine administration argued against long-term survival of newborn neurons in the piriform cortex.