Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) accumulation in aged Sprague–Dawley rats (12 months) with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus was investigated by Aβ(1–40) and Aβ(1–42) immunohistochemistry at 2, 6 and 10 weeks after induction. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 transporting Aβ across the blood–brain barrier was assayed. Age-matched controls showed some positive Aβ staining, mainly in the choroid plexus. At 2 weeks after induction, Aβ staining of the arachnoid and subependymal layer was observed. At 6 weeks, larger Aβ accumulations were prominent at the endothelial and perivascular sites. Intraparenchymal Aβ positively stained accumulations occurred at 10 weeks. Microvessel lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 staining was progressively reduced from 2 to 10 weeks. The pattern of Aβ deposition and lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 loss suggests reduced Aβ clearance in chronic hydrocephalus.