This review presents a summary of recent efforts in understanding the systems of the brain involved in motor imagery. Motor imagery likely involves many cortical regions in its generation, but in action may also involve subcortical structures. The parietal lobe seems to be particularly important, as demonstrated by brain imaging studies and patients with lesions of this region. Brain activity correlated with imagery may be related to an efference copy used to compare with peripheral sensory signals for the correction of movement. Amputees with phantom representations have also provided valuable information in this field, as they demonstrate cortical reorganization, which also alters imagery of the missing limb. The following summary explores the recent difficult and challenging studies used to tease out motor imagery in man.