Salidroside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has been reported to be neuroprotective in vitro, which raises the possibility of using SDS as a neuroprotective agent after nerve injuries. In the present study, the possibly beneficial effect of SDS on promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats was investigated. Rats with sciatic nerve crush injury were administered intraperitoneally daily with 5 or 10 mg/kg body weight of SDS for 4 weeks. Rats that received mecobalamin or saline were considered as a positive or a negative control, respectively. Morphometric analysis of regenerated nerves and Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing was used to evaluate axonal regeneration, whereas walking track analysis, electrophysiological assessment, and histological appearance of target muscles were carried out to evaluate the recovery of motor function. The results showed that SDS achieved functionally successful nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, indicating that SDS holds potential as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve therapies.