Human enteric neural stem cells (hENSCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells in response to a complex network of neurotrophic factors to form the enteric nervous system. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on in-vitro expansion and differentiation of postnatal hENSCs-containing enteric neurosphere cells. Enteric neurosphere cells were isolated from rectal polyp specimens of 75 children (age, 1–13 years) and conditioned with bFGF, EGF, bFGF+EGF, or plain culture media. Proliferation of enteric neurosphere cells was examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetric assay over 7 days of culture. Fetal bovine serum (10%) was added to induce the differentiation of parental enteric neurosphere cells, and differentiated offspring cells were immunophenotyped against p75 neutrophin receptor (neural stem cells), peripherin (neuronal cells), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cells). Combining bFGF and EGF significantly improved the proliferation of enteric neurosphere cells compared with bFGF or EGF alone (both P<0.01) throughout 7 days of culture. The addition of bFGF drove a significantly greater proportion of enteric neurosphere cells to differentiate into neuronal cells than that of EGF (P<0.01), whereas addition of EGF resulted in significantly more glial differentiation compared with addition of bFGF (P<0.01). Combining bFGF and EGF drove enteric neurosphere cells to differentiate into neuronal cells in a proportion similar to glial cells. Our results showed that the combination of bFGF and EGF significantly enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of postnatal hENSCs-containing enteric neurosphere cells in vitro.