Gentiopicroside protects neurons from astrocyte-mediated inflammatory injuries by inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways


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Abstract

The effects of gentiopicroside (Gent), an active component derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Gentiana macrophylla, on lipopolysaccharide-induced astrocyte activation and subsequent neuronal damage were investigated. Gent significantly inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E, as well as expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced primary astrocytes. Furthermore, Gent relieved neurotoxicity from astrocyte-mediated inflammatory injury. Mechanism studies indicated that Gent significantly suppressed nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation and down-regulated c-Jun-N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation levels with little influence on elevated p-p38 levels. Taken together, our findings suggested Gent could prevent the neurotoxicity related to astrocyte-mediated inflammatory injury by inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The study also indicated that neuronal injury could be prevented by promptly modulating inflammatory responses of astrocytes.

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