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A random sample of 470 Army enlisted men who served tours of duty in Vietnam and returned to the United States in September, 1971 was selected from military records. Between May and September, 1972, these servicemen were located and personally interviewed. Additional information was obtained from their military records and from Veterans Administration files. Interviews were obtained for 95 per cent and military records for 99 per cent. Veterans Administration records were available for 22 per cent of the sample.Depressive disorders appeared to be a significant problem in these enlistees after their return. Twenty-six per cent of the total sample reported at least some symptoms of depression, and 7 per cent reported a full affective syndrome. A third of those with depressive syndromes have had psychiatric care since their return. The association of depression with combat, use of illicit drugs, and other pre- and post-Vietnam variables is discussed.