MRI of the Perihemorrhagic Zone in a Rat ICH Model: Effect of Hematoma Evacuation

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Background

Perihemorrhagic pathophysiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) remains unclear. Recently, ischemic changes in the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) have been discussed as a potential source of secondary damage. In this study, we focussed on diffusion and perfusion characteristics of experimental ICH.

Methods

Experimental ICH was induced with a double injection model in rats. In total, 49 animals were examined at three timepoints within 3.5 h after ICH with a 2.35T animal scanner. We investigated perihemorrhagic relative apparent diffusion coefficients (rADC) and relative mean transit time (rMTT). Animals were divided into 2 groups; controls (gr1, n = 27) and facilitated hematoma evacuation with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after the first of 3 imaging time points (gr2, n = 22). Diffusion (rADC) and perfusion (rMTT) characteristics were analyzed in 3 regions of interest surrounding the hematoma (ROI1–3).

Results

Overall rADC and rMTT values in ROI3 (normal tissue) did not show any changes. There was mild edema—not ischemia—in ROIs1 and 2 at TP1 with rADC of 1.05–1.18 in both groups indicating vasogenic edema (not ischemia). This did not change with hematoma evacuation. There was mild (non-critical) perfusion reduction in ROIs1 and 2 at TP1, which disappeared after clot evacuation in group 2 (P < 0.05 for TP3). Multifactorial ANOVA showed a solid trend (0.06 < P < 0.1) for clot evacuation associated normalization of perfusion in ROIs 1 and 2 within and in between groups 1 and 2.

Conclusions

We demonstrated vasogenic edema and mild perfusion reduction in the PHZ above the ischemic threshold. The existence of a perihemorrhagic “penumbra” indicating critically ischemic tissue analogous to ischemic stroke is unlikely.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles