To identify the gene mutation of tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM) and gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder.Methods:
We described a family affected by autosomal dominant TAM and performed exome and Sanger sequencing to identify mutations. We further analyzed the functional significance of the identified mutation by expression studies and intracellular Ca2+ measurements.Results:
A 42-year-old man presented with slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy in all 4 limbs and the trunk. Muscle biopsy and microscopic examination revealed tubular aggregates in his skeletal muscle. Genetic analysis of this family identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.1450_1451insGA (p.Ile484ArgfsX21), in stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor in sarcoplasmic reticulum. We transfected cultured cells with STIM1 and demonstrated that the mutant STIM1 exhibited aggregation-like appearance in shrunk cytoplasm. Furthermore, we revealed that the intracellular Ca2+ influx is decreased by the mutant STIM1.Conclusions:
The novel mutation p.Ile484ArgfsX21 is located in the cytoplasmic C-terminal inhibitory domain (CTID) of STIM1. However, all mutations reported so far in TAM reside in the luminal N-terminal EF hand region. The aggregation-like appearance of STIM1 and the decreased intracellular Ca2+ influx in cells transfected with CTID mutant are in sharp contrast to these previous reports. Taken together, these findings indicate that mutations of STIM1 cause TAM through the dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis.