Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome with mutations in the myomaker gene and muscle fiber hypertrophy

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Abstract

Objective

To describe the long-term clinical follow-up in 3 siblings with Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome (CFZS), a form of congenital myopathy with a novel mutation in the myomaker gene (MYMK).

Methods

We performed clinical investigations, repeat muscle biopsy in 2 of the siblings at ages ranging from 11 months to 18 years, and whole-genome sequencing.

Results

All the siblings had a marked and characteristic facial weakness and variable dysmorphic features affecting the face, hands, and feet, and short stature. They had experienced muscle hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness since early childhood. The muscle biopsies revealed, as the only major abnormality at all ages, a marked hypertrophy of both type 1 and type 2 fibers with more than twice the diameter of that in age-matched controls. Genetic analysis revealed biallelic mutations in the MYMK gene, a novel c.235T>C; p.(Trp79Arg), and the previously described c.271C>A; p.(Pro91Thr).

Conclusions

Our study expands the genetic and clinical spectrum of MYMK mutations and CFZS. The marked muscle fiber hypertrophy identified from early childhood, despite apparently normal muscle bulk, indicates that defective fusion of myoblasts during embryonic muscle development results in a reduced number of muscle fibers with compensatory hypertrophy and muscle weakness.

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