Investigation of the pulsatility of cerebrospinal fluid using cardiac-gated Intravoxel Incoherent Motion imaging

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The quantitative and non-invasive monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and composition may have high clinical relevance in the management of CSF disorders. In this study, we propose the use of the Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) MRI for obtaining simultaneous measurements of CSF self-diffusion and fluid circulation. The rationale for this study was that turbulent fluid and mesoscopic fluid fluctuations can be modeled in a first approximation as a fast diffusion process. In this case, we expect that the fast fluid circulation and slower molecular diffusion dynamics can be quantified, assuming a bi-exponential attenuation pattern of the diffusion-weighted signal in MRI.

IVIM indexes of fast and slow diffusion measured at different sites of the CSF system were systematically evaluated depending on both the phase of the heart cycle and the direction of the diffusion-encoding. The IVIM measurements were compared to dynamic measurements of fluid circulation performed by phase-contrast MRI.

Concerning the dependence on the diffusion/flow-encoding direction, similar patterns were found both in the fraction of fast diffusion, f, and in the fluid velocity. Generally, we observed a moderate to high correlation between the fraction of fast diffusion and the maximum fluid velocity along the high-flow directions. Exploratory data analysis detected similarities in the dependency of the fraction of fast diffusion and of the velocity from the phase of the cardiac cycle. However, no significant differences were found between parameters measured during different phases of the cardiac cycle.

Our results suggest that the fraction of fast diffusion may reflect CSF circulation. The bi-exponential IVIM model potentially allows us to disentangle the two diffusion components of the CSF dynamics by providing measurements of fluid cellularity (via the slow-diffusion coefficient) and circulation (via the fraction of fast-diffusion index).

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