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Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a rapidly developing imaging modality that directly measures and maps the concentration of injected superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). Since the agent does not cross the blood-brain barrier, cerebral SPIO concentration provides a direct probe of Cerebral Blood Volume (CBV). Here we provide an initial demonstration of the ability of MPI to detect functional CBV changes (fCBV) by monitoring SPIO concentration during hypercapnic manipulation in a rat model. As a tracer detection method, MPI offers a more direct probe of agent concentration and therefore fCBV than MRI measurements in which the agent is indirectly detected through perturbation of water relaxation time constants such as T2*. We found that MPI detection could measure CBV changes during hypercapnia with high CNR (CNR = 50) and potentially with high temporal resolution. Although the detection process more closely resembles a tracer method, we also identify evidence of physiological noise in the MPI time-series, with higher time-series variance at higher concentration levels. Our findings suggest that CBV-based MPI can provide a detection modality for hemodynamic changes. Further investigation with tomographic imaging is needed to assess tomographic ability of the method and further study the presence of time-series fluctuations which scale with signal level similar to physiological noise in resting fMRI time-courses.A single-sided Magnetic Particle (MP) detector was developed for rodent CBV measurements.Phantom experiments validated sensitivity to physiologically relevant SPIO concentrations.fCBV measurements during hyper/hypocapnia detected CBV modulations with CNR = 50.Observed physiological noise in the resting-state merits further study.