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Recent methodological advances have enabled researchers to track the network structure of the human brain over time. Together, these studies provide novel insights into effective brain function, highlighting the importance of the systems-level perspective in understanding the manner in which the human brain organizes its activity to facilitate behavior. Here, we review a range of recent fMRI and electrophysiological studies that have mapped the relationship between inter-regional communication and network structure across a diverse range of brain states. In doing so, we identify both behavioral and biological axes that may underlie the tendency for network reconfiguration. We conclude our review by providing suggestions for future research endeavors that may help to refine our understanding of the functioning of the human brain.The network structure of the brain changes as a function of behavioral state.We review a range of studies that examine these effects using multimodal neuroimaging.We then provide potential mechanistic hypotheses for explaining these phenomena.