Source-reconstruction of the sensorimotor network from resting-state macaque electrocorticography

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Abstract

The discovery of hemodynamic (BOLD-fMRI) resting-state networks (RSNs) has brought about a fundamental shift in our thinking about the role of intrinsic brain activity. The electrophysiological underpinnings of RSNs remain largely elusive and it has been shown only recently that electric cortical rhythms are organized into the same RSNs as hemodynamic signals. Most electrophysiological studies into RSNs use magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG), which limits the spatial resolution with which electrophysiological RSNs can be observed. Due to their close proximity to the cortical surface, electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings can potentially provide a more detailed picture of the functional organization of resting-state cortical rhythms, albeit at the expense of spatial coverage. In this study we propose using source-space spatial independent component analysis (spatial ICA) for identifying generators of resting-state cortical rhythms as recorded with ECoG and for reconstructing their functional connectivity. Network structure is assessed by two kinds of connectivity measures: instantaneous correlations between band-limited amplitude envelopes and oscillatory phase-locking. By simulating rhythmic cortical generators, we find that the reconstruction of oscillatory phase-locking is more challenging than that of amplitude correlations, particularly for low signal-to-noise levels. Specifically, phase-lags can both be over- and underestimated, which troubles the interpretation of lag-based connectivity measures. We illustrate the methodology on somatosensory beta rhythms recorded from a macaque monkey using ECoG. The methodology decomposes the resting-state sensorimotor network into three cortical generators, distributed across primary somatosensory and primary and higher-order motor areas. The generators display significant and reproducible amplitude correlations and phase-locking values with non-zero lags. Our findings illustrate the level of spatial detail attainable with source-projected ECoG and motivates wider use of the methodology for studying resting-state as well as event-related cortical dynamics in macaque and human.

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