Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a fundamental role in a variety of physiological functions in many cell types by acting as a secondary messenger. Variation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is often observed when the cell is stimulated. However, it is a challenging task to automatically quantify intracellular [Ca2+]i in a population of cells. In this study, we present a workflow including specific algorithms for the automated intracellular calcium signal analysis using high-content, time-lapse cellular images. The experimental validations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed workflow and algorithms. We applied the workflow to analyze the intracellular calcium signals induced by different concentrations of H2O2 in the cell lines transfected by presenilin-1 (PS-1) that is known to be closely related to the familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). The analysis results imply an important role of mutant PS-1, but not normal human PS-1 and mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP), in enhancing intracellular calcium signaling induced by H2O2.