To determine the performance of an artificial neural network in transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) diagnosis of middle cerebral artery (MCA) spasm. TCCS was prospectively acquired within 2 h prior to routine cerebral angiography in 100 consecutive patients (54M:46F, median age 50 years). Angiographic MCA vasospasm was classified as mild (<25% of vessel caliber reduction), moderate (25–50%), or severe (>50%). A Learning Vector Quantization neural network classified MCA spasm based on TCCS peak-systolic, mean, and end-diastolic velocity data. During a four-class discrimination task, accurate classification by the network ranged from 64.9% to 72.3%, depending on the number of neurons in the Kohonen layer. Accurate classification of vasospasm ranged from 79.6% to 87.6%, with an accuracy of 84.7% to 92.1% for the detection of moderate-to-severe vasospasm. An artificial neural network may increase the accuracy of TCCS in diagnosis of MCA spasm.