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In recent years there has been a great deal of research within the stem cell field which has led to the definition and classification of a range of stem cells from a plethora of tissues and organs. Stem cells, by classification, are considered to be pluri- or multipotent and have both self-renewal and multi-differentiation capabilities. Presently there is a great deal of interest in stem cells isolated from both embryonic and adult tissues in the hope they hold the therapeutic key to restoring or treating damaged cells in a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In this review we will discuss the role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from human olfactory mucosa, with particular emphasis on their potential role as a candidate for transplant mediated repair in the CNS. Since nestin expression defines the entire population of olfactory mucosal derived MSCs, we will compare these cells to a population of neural crest derived nestin positive population of bone marrow-MSCs.Human olfactory mucosa is a new source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).Some bone marrow MSCs are nestin-positive, neural crest derived and regulate hematopoietic stem cell activation.Human olfactory mucosa contains a population of nestin-positive MSCs that secrete CXCL12 and may have promote CNS repair.