7T MRI in natalizumab-associated PML and ongoing MS disease activity: A case study

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Abstract

Objective:

To assess the ability of ultra-high-field MRI to distinguish early progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) from multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in a rare case of simultaneous presentation of natalizumab–associated PML and ongoing MS activity.

Methods:

Advanced neuroimaging including 1.5T, 3T, and 7T MRI with a spatial resolution of up to 0.08 mm3 was performed.

Results:

7T MRI differentiated between PML-related and MS-related brain damage in vivo. Ring-enhancing MS plaques displayed a central vein, whereas confluent PML lesions were preceded by punctate or milky way–like T2 lesions.

Conclusions:

Given the importance of early diagnosis of treatment-associated PML, future systematic studies are warranted to assess the value of highly resolving MRI in differentiating between early PML- and MS-induced brain parenchymal lesions.

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