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To evaluate whether the anti-LINGO-1 antibody has immunomodulatory effects.Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs), rat splenocytes, and rat CD4+ T cells were assessed to determine whether LINGO-1 was expressed and was inducible. Anti-LINGO-1 Li81 (0.1–30 μg/mL) effect on proliferation/cytokine production was assessed in purified rat CD4+ T cells and hPBMCs stimulated with antibodies to CD3 +/– CD28. In humans, the effect of 2 opicinumab (anti-LINGO-1/BIIB033; 30, 60, and 100 mg/kg) or placebo IV administrations was evaluated in RNA from blood and CSF samples taken before and after administration in phase 1 clinical trials; paired samples were assessed for differentially expressed genes by microarray. RNA from human CSF cell pellets was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for changes in transcripts representative of cell types, activation markers, and soluble proteins of the adaptive/innate immune systems. ELISA quantitated the levels of CXCL13 protein in human CSF supernatants.LINGO-1 is not expressed in hPBMCs, rat splenocytes, or rat CD4+ T cells; LINGO-1 blockade with Li81 did not affect T-cell proliferation or cytokine production from purified rat CD4+ T cells or hPBMCs. LINGO-1 blockade with opicinumab resulted in neither significant changes in immune system gene expression in blood and CSF, nor changes in CXCL13 CSF protein levels (clinical studies).These data support the hypothesis that LINGO-1 blockade does not affect immune function.This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with MS, opicinumab does not have immunomodulatory effects detected by changes in immune gene transcript expression.