Compound FLZ (cFLZ) is a synthetic novel derivative of natural squamosamide. Previous pharmacological study found that cFLZ improved the abnormal behavior and the decrease of dopamine content in striatum in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) model mice. 1-Methyl 4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is the active metabolite of MPTP to cause Parkinsonism in experimental animals. The purpose of this paper was to further study the protective action of cFLZ against MPP+-induced apoptosis and alternations of related signaling transduction. The results indicated that cFLZ at concentrations of 0.1 μM and 1 μM prevented 100 μM MPP+-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells, and inhibited the release of cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and the activation of caspase 3 and NF-κB as well as α-synuclein gene and protein expressions. The results suggest that cFLZ possesses potent neuroprotective activity and may be a potential anti-Parkinson's disease drug worthy for further study.