Oxidative stress, in response to the activation of the superoxide-producing enzyme Nox2, has been implicated in the schizophrenia-like behavioral dysfunction that develops in animals that were subject to either neonatal NMDA receptor-antagonist treatment or social isolation. In both of these animal models of schizophrenia, an environmental insult occurring during the period of active maturation of the fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneuronal circuit leads to a diminished expression of parvalbumin in GABA-inhibitory neurons when animals reach adulthood. The loss of PV+ interneurons in animal models had been tentatively attributed to the death of these neurons. However, present results show that for the perinatal NMDA-R antagonist model these interneurons are still alive when animals are 5–6 weeks of age even though they have lost their phenotype and no longer express parvalbumin. Alterations in parvalbumin expression and sensory-evoked gamma-oscillatory activity, regulated by PV+ interneurons, are consistently observed in schizophrenia. We propose that cortical networks consisting of faulty PV+ interneurons interacting with pyramidal neurons may be responsible for the aberrant oscillatory activity observed in schizophrenia. Thus, oxidative stress during the maturation window for PV+ interneurons by alteration of normal brain development, leads to the emergence of schizophrenia-like behavioral dysfunctions when subjects reach early adulthood.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Schizophrenia’.Highlights
▸ Selective and non-selective NMDA receptor antagonists increase superoxide in adult brain. ▸ Early-life redox dysregulation induces schizophrenia-like neurochemical disruptions. ▸ Nox2-gene disruption prevents perinatal ketamine-induced loss of PV expression. ▸ Although parvalbumin-less, neurons remain alive after early-life manipulations