Desmethyldiazepam—providing the long-term anticonvulsant effect when diazepam is given orally—is conveniently administered as clorazepate (Tranxene®). In this study, clorazepate was compared to phenobarbital as a secondary anticonvulsant in eight ambulatory, adult outpatients. Stable doses of phenytoin were maintained throughout. Drowsiness was present in all on phenobarbital, but there were no clorazepate-related side effects. Seizure control did not differ for each treatment. Addition of common side effects of phenytoin and phenobarbital limited the attained serum levels of each when used together. Clorazepate doses in the 0.56-mg-per-kilogram range gave desmethyldiazepam levels in the 1.0-ug-per-milliliter range. Induction of metabolism was suggested by falling desmethyldiazepam levels despite increasing doses. Clorazepate is an effective, nontoxic secondary anticonvulsant.