We determined the accuracy of volumetric MRI (based on identification of unilateral hippocampal atrophy) and scalp-sphenoidal EEG (based on concordant interpretations of scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG by three independent interpreters) for seizure focus localization in 20 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. All patients became seizure-free or had rare seizures following temporal lobectomy. Among the 20 patients, nine (45%) met both MRI and EEG localization criteria, six (30%) met MRI localization criteria alone, three (15%) met EEG localization criteria alone, and two patients (10%) did not meet either localization criteria. In the 18 patients meeting MRI or EEG localization criteria, the predicted localization agreed with the side of temporal lobectomy. These results suggest that a nonin-vasive approach combining MRI and EEG will correctly localize the side of seizure onset in most patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.