Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is anecdotally associated with macrocephaly, hydrocephalus, basilar invagination, and cerebral atrophy, but the frequency and the spectrum of neurologic features of this condition are poorly defined. We report our experience with 76 patients with OI seen at NIH. Neuroimaging studies demonstrated sulcal prominence and ventriculomegaly consistent with communicating hydrocephalus in 17 patients. Eight individuals with severe OI types displayed basilar invagination, causing brainstem compression in three patients. Head circumference growth showed abnormal kinetics with percentile crossing after fontanelle closure in 13 patients, and absolute macrocephaly was present in 11 patients. Additional neurologic complications included skull fracture (10 individuals); seizure disorders (five); transient, unexplained long tract signs (three); and spinal compression and pontine, cervical, and thoracic syringohydromyelia (one patient each). The clinically important neurologic complications appear to be brainstem compression from basilar invagination, skull fracture, and seizure disorders. Neurologic evaluation should be part of a team approach in the management of patients with severe OI types.