Menstrual disorders and infertility are common among women with epilepsy of temporal lobe origin (TLE). Reproductive endocrine disorders may be the cause. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, HH), in particular, are significantly overrepresented and attributable to hypothalamic dysfunction. We therefore compared the hypothalamic function of 14 women with clinically and electrographically documented TLE with that of eight age-matched normal controls by determining the interictal pulse frequency and amplitude of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Serum for LH measurement was drawn every 15 minutes from 8 AM to 4 PM in both groups. LH pulse frequency values were significantly more variable (p < 0.05) and lower (p < 0.05) among women with TLE than among controls. Women with left temporal EEG foci showed a trend toward higher pulse frequencies compared to women with right foci (p = 0.05 to 0.10). Among five women with reproductive endocrine disorders, the three with PCO had left-sided foci and average LH pulse frequency two times higher than that of the two women with HH, who had right-sided foci. Eight reproductively normal, medically treated women with TLE had significantly lower LH pulse frequencies than did the one reproductively normal, untreated woman with TLE (p < 0.05) and the eight normal controls (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that LH pulse frequencies in women with TLE may be influenced by the laterality of the epileptic focus, the reproductive endocrine status, and the use of antiseizure medications.