Long-term progression in chronic manganism: Ten years of follow-up

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Article abstract

We studied the long-term clinical course of five patients with chronic manganese intoxication. The mean scores of the King's College Hospital Rating Scale for Parkinson's disease increased from 15.0 ± 4.2 in 1987 to 28.3 ± 6.70 in 1991 and then to 38.1 ± 12.9 in 1995. The deterioration was most prominent in gait, rigidity, speed of foot tapping, and writing. Tissue concentrations of manganese in blood, urine, scalp hair, and pubic hair returned to normal. Follow-up MRIs did not show paramagnetic high-signal intensity on T1-weighted images. The data indicate that clinical progression in patients with manganese parkinsonism continues even 10 years after cessation of exposure.

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