We studied the physiologic adaptation of patients with mitochondrial myopathies to aerobic training. Ten patients underwent individually supervised, moderate-intensity aerobic training on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Biochemical and functional measures improved with training. Estimated aerobic capacity increased by 30%. Blood lactate concentrations at rest and after exercise decreased by 30%. Muscle phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of adenosine diphosphate recovery after exercise improved by more than 60%. Fatigue and tolerance to daily activities also improved. Although the improvement in exercise tolerance may be due in part to reversal of the effects of secondary deconditioning, this uncontrolled clinical trial suggests that aerobic training can benefit patients with mitochondrial myopathies.