We assessed the long-term efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in 64 refractory epilepsy patients. After implantation, intermittent stimulation was delivered and seizure frequency and severity were counted. Average treatment time was 20 months. Nineteen of 47 patients with partial seizures, five of nine patients with idiopathic generalized seizures, and five of eight patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome had >50% seizure reduction. Side effects were mild. VNS is a safe and effective treatment for refractory epilepsy.