Recent studies suggest that variants of the DLST gene alter the risk of AD. DLST encodes the core subunit of the mitochondrial α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, which is deficient in AD. The authors report that in 247 US white subjects, homozygosity for DLST A19,117, T19,183 was associated with a reduced risk of AD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35, p = 0.018). The reduced risk was marked in subjects who did not carry the apolipoprotein (APOE)-4 allele (OR = 0.16, p = 0.014). Further study of DLST in AD appears warranted.