Progression types after antiangiogenic therapy are related to outcome in recurrent glioblastoma

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This retrospective study analyzed whether the type of radiologic progression, classified according to contrast enhancement on MRI T1-weighted sequences and changes in T2-hyperintense signal, is relevant for outcome in patients with progressive glioblastoma (pGB) treated with bevacizumab.


MRI scans of 83 patients with pGB treated with bevacizumab were evaluated prior to and at disease progression. Based on initial decrease in and subsequent flare-up of contrast enhancement in T1 and 2 patterns of T2-hyperintense tumor progression, progression types (PTs) were categorized as cT1 flare-up, T2-diffuse, T2-circumscribed, or primary nonresponder. Overall survival (OS), survival from start of bevacizumab therapy (OS_Bev), survival after bevacizumab failure (OS_PostBev), time from initial diagnosis until initiation of bevacizumab therapy (StartBevT), and time to bevacizumab progression were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test, and Cox regression analyses.


The time observed for development of a T2-diffuse (n = 15) or a cT1 flare-up (n = 35) progression was longer than for progression in primary nonresponders (n = 16) or T2-circumscribed progression (n = 17). The T2-diffuse PT showed longer OS, OS_Bev, OS_PostBev, and StartBevT compared to the other PTs. Postprogression therapy tended to be relevant only for patients with a T2-circumscribed PT.


Radiologic PTs following bevacizumab treatment failure show differences in time to development and are related to outcome. We therefore hypothesize that these PTs reflect a different glioma biology, including differential resistance mechanisms to bevacizumab, and may be associated with different responses to postprogression therapy.

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