Raloxifene for women with Alzheimer disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial

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To determine whether raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, improves cognitive function compared with placebo in women with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to provide an estimate of cognitive effect.


This pilot study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with a planned treatment of 12 months. Women with late-onset AD of mild to moderate severity were randomly allocated to high-dose (120 mg) oral raloxifene or identical placebo provided once daily. The primary outcome compared between treatment groups at 12 months was change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog).


Forty-two women randomized to raloxifene or placebo were included in intent-to-treat analyses (mean age 76 years, range 68–84), and 39 women contributed 12-month outcomes. ADAS-cog change scores at 12 months did not differ significantly between treatment groups (standardized difference 0.03, 95% confidence interval −0.39 to 0.44, 2-tailed p = 0.89). Raloxifene and placebo groups did not differ significantly on secondary analyses of dementia rating, activities of daily living, behavior, or a global cognition composite score. Caregiver burden and caregiver distress were similar in both groups.


Results on the primary outcome showed no cognitive benefits in the raloxifene-treated group.

Classification of evidence:

This study provides Class I evidence that for women with AD, raloxifene does not have a significant cognitive effect. The study lacked the precision to exclude a small effect.

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