Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with brain atrophy and hypometabolism in the ADNI cohort

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We investigated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a risk factor for brain atrophy and glucose hypometabolism in older adults with or at risk of cognitive impairment.


Participants with the T2DM were identified from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-1/GO/2 cohorts). Analysis of covariance models were used to compare participants with and without T2DM, controlling for potential confounding factors.


Whole brain volume and whole brain [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were significantly different as a function of T2DM status, independent of baseline clinical diagnosis. On post hoc analysis, a lower whole brain volume was seen in participants with both mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and T2DM (n = 76) compared with participants who had MCI but not T2DM (n = 747; p = 0.009). Similarly, mean FDG uptake in gray matter and white matter was lower in participants with both MCI and T2DM (n = 72) than in participants with MCI without T2DM (n = 719; p = 0.04). Subsequent regional analysis revealed that the decreased FDG uptake in participants with both MCI and T2DM was mainly manifested in 3 brain regions: frontal lobe, sensory motor cortex, and striatum.


T2DM may accelerate cognition deterioration in patients with MCI by affecting glucose metabolism and brain volume.

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