To investigate whether cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) is associated with increased risk of future first-ever symptomatic lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) presenting with neurologic symptoms and without ICH.Methods:
Consecutive patients meeting modified Boston criteria for probable CAA in the absence of ICH from a single-center cohort were analyzed. cSS and other small vessel disease MRI markers were assessed according to recent consensus recommendations. Patients were followed prospectively for future incident symptomatic lobar ICH. Prespecified Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate cSS and first-ever lobar ICH risk adjusting for potential confounders.Results:
The cohort included 236 patients with probable CAA without lobar ICH at baseline. cSS prevalence was 34%. During a median follow-up of 3.26 years (interquartile range 1.42–5.50 years), 27 of 236 patients (11.4%) experienced a first-ever symptomatic lobar ICH. cSS was a predictor of time until first ICH (p = 0.0007, log-rank test). The risk of symptomatic ICH at 5 years of follow-up was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11%–32%) for patients with cSS at baseline vs 6% (95% CI 3%–12%) for patients without cSS. In multivariable Cox regression models, cSS presence was the only independent predictor of increased symptomatic ICH risk during follow-up (HR 4.04; 95% CI 1.73–9.44, p = 0.001), after adjusting for age, lobar cerebral microbleeds burden, and white matter hyperintensities.Conclusions:
cSS is consistently associated with an increased risk of future lobar ICH in CAA with potentially important clinical implications for patient care decisions such as antithrombotic use.