To determine if ovarian aging as measured by levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is associated with pattern of multiple sclerosis (MS) progression in women.Methods
Women with MS and healthy controls were included from a longitudinal research cohort with up to 10 years follow-up. Plasma AMH levels were measured by ELISA for baseline and years 3, 5, and 8–10. Mixed effects logistic and linear regression models were employed, with adjustments for age, disease duration, and other covariables as appropriate.Results
AMH levels were similar (0.98-fold difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69–1.37, p = 0.87) in women with MS (n = 412, mean age 42.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 180, mean age 44 years). In a multivariable model of women with MS, including adjustments for age, body mass index, and disease duration, 10-fold lower AMH level was associated with 0.43-higher Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (95% CI 0.15–0.70, p = 0.003), 0.25-unit worse MS Functional Composite z score (95% CI −0.40 to −0.10, p = 0.0015), and 7.44 mm3 lower cortical gray matter volume (95% CI −14.6 to −0.30; p = 0.041) at baseline. In a multivariable random-intercept–random-slope model using all observations over time, 10-fold decrease in AMH was associated with a 0.27 increase in EDSS (95% CI 0.11–0.43, p = 0.006) and 5.48 mm3 (95% CI 11.3–0.33, p = 0.065) and 4.55 mm3 (95% CI 9.33–0.23, p = 0.062) decreases in total gray and cortical gray matter, respectively.Conclusion
As a marker of ovarian aging, lower AMH levels were associated with greater disability and gray matter loss in women with MS independent of chronological age and disease duration.