A benchmark approach to hemorrhage risk management of cavernous malformations

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ObjectiveDespite the low annual risk of hemorrhage associated with a cavernous malformation (CM) (0.6%–1.1% per year), the risk of rehemorrhage rate and severity of neurologic deficits is significantly higher; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the rupture risk of CMs depending on various factors.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed medical records of all patients with CM admitted to our institution between 1999 and April 2016. Cavernoma volume, location of the lesion, existence of a developmental venous anomaly (DVA), number of cavernomas, and patient characteristics (sex, age, hypertension, and antithrombotic therapy) were assessed.ResultsOne hundred fifty-four patients with CM were included; 89 (58%) ruptured CMs were identified. In statistical univariable analysis, the existence of a DVA was significantly higher in the ruptured cavernoma group (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] 4.6). A multivariable analysis of all included independent risk factors designated young age (<45 years) (p < 0.05; OR 2.2), infratentorial location (p < 0.01; OR 2.9), and existence of a DVA (p < 0.0001; OR 4.7) with significantly higher risk of rupture in our patient cohort. A separate analysis of these anatomical locations, supratentorial vs infratentorial, indicated that the existence of a DVA (p < 0.01; OR 4.16) in ruptured supratentorial cases and CM volume (≥1 cm3) (p < 0.0001; OR 3.5) in ruptured infratentorial cases were significant independent predictors for hemorrhage.ConclusionsYoung age (<45 years), infratentorial location, and the presence of a DVA are associated with a higher hemorrhage risk. CM volume (≥1 cm3) and the existence of a DVA were independently in accordance with the anatomical location high risk factors for CM rupture.

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