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To investigate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and subsequent Parkinson disease (PD).Linked English national Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality data (1999–2011) were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study. A cohort of individuals admitted for hospital care with a coded diagnosis of T2DM was constructed, and compared to a reference cohort. Subsequent PD risk was estimated using Cox regression models. Individuals with a coded diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, and normal pressure hydrocephalus were excluded from the analysis.A total of 2,017,115 individuals entered the T2DM cohort and 6,173,208 entered the reference cohort. There were significantly elevated rates of PD following T2DM (hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–1.35; p < 0.001). The relative increase was greater in those with complicated T2DM (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.42–1.56) and when comparing younger individuals (HR 3.81, 95% CI 2.84–5.11 in age group 25–44 years).We report an increased rate of subsequent PD following T2DM in this large cohort study. These findings may reflect shared genetic predisposition and/or disrupted shared pathogenic pathways with potential clinical and therapeutic implications.