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Soon after the initial description of acromegaly in the late 19th century, neurosurgeons performed the first operative procedures for the disease. Transcranial procedures eventually yielded to the transsphenoidal approach. Reasonably effective medical therapy was introduced in the 1970s and pharmacological progress continues to be realized. It is now recognized that excess growth hormone is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and that biochemical remission improves outcome. Although medical and radiation treatments offer useful adjuncts, surgery provides optimal results.