Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Clinical and biological heterogeneity and current treatment

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SummaryThyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas represent about 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas and cause secondary or central hyperthyroidism. TSH-secreting adenomas are part of the syndrome of 'inappropriate secretion of TSH' (SITSH). The hormonal profile is characterized by nonsuppressed TSH in the presence of high levels of free thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4). Previous reports have described the surgical cure of TSH adenoma to be more difficult than other functional adenomas because of large and invasive features. However, with the current introduction of ultrasensitive immunometric assays, TSH-secreting adenomas are more often recognized. Early diagnosis of TSH-secreting adenomas leads to a high rate of remission of hyperthyroidism after surgery. However, some of those type of adenomas have clinical heterogeneity, and subsequently cannot be cured by surgery alone. We present our experiences and review reported cases of TSH-secreting adenomas to direct current management.

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