Mechanisms of ammonia-induced cell death in rat cortical neurons: Roles of NMDA receptors and glutathione

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The occurrence, nature and prevention of ammonia-induced cell death were assayed in cultured primary cortical neurons from newborn rats. Treatment with 1–10 mM ammonium chloride for 24 or 48 h, dose-dependently decreased neuronal survival (MTT assay) and GSH/GSSG ratio in the cultures, whereas total GSH content was significantly reduced only with 10 mM ammonia. Treatment with a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionyl sulfoximine (BSO) (10 μM), decreased the GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio to a degree similar to that of 10 mM ammonia, but it did not decrease cell survival in control cells. This indicates that glutathione depletion per se is not a cause of ammonia-induced neuronal death. However, ammonia-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated by incubation with glutathione diethyl ester (GEE), which transiently increased the intracellular GSH level in both control and ammonia-treated cells. Neuronal survival in the presence of ammonia was partly improved by the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and APV. Morphological analysis revealed that ammonia treatment causes both apoptotic and non-apoptotic neuronal death, the former not being inhibited by MK-801. Apoptosis was the dominant type of cell death at 10 mM ammonia, as concluded both from morphologic examination and the absence of survival improvement in the presence of GABA + nipecotic acid or taurine, model anti-excitotoxic treatments of cortical neurons. The mechanism underlying apoptosis may include inhibition of a survival kinase, Akt, whose activatory phosphorylation at Ser473 is reduced in neurons treated with 10 mM, but not 1 mM ammonia.

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