Mitochondria from a mouse model of the human infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) with genetic defects in VIA iPLA2 have disturbed Ca2+ regulation with reduction in Ca2+ capacity

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Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene which encodes Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (VIA iPLA2) were detected in 85% of cases of the inherited degenerative nervous system disorder INAD (infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, OMIM #256600). However, molecular mechanisms linking these mutations to the disease progression are unclear. VIA iPLA2 is expressed also in mitochondria. Here, we investigate Ca2+ handling by brain mitochondria derived from mice with hypomorph Pla2g6 allele. These animals with reduced transcript levels (5% of wild type) represent a suitable model for INAD. We demonstrated significant reduction of Ca2+ uptake rate and Ca2+ retention capacity in brain mitochondria isolated from this mutant. This phenotype could be mimicked when in wild-type controls VIA iPLA2 was inhibited by S-BEL. Importantly, the reduction could be ameliorated partly by addition of the VIA iPLA2 product, sn-2 lysophosphatidyl-choline. Furthermore, we demonstrated in situ a reduced mitochondrial potential in neurons from mice deficient in VIA iPLA2, which could cause the reduced Ca2+ uptake rate via the potential-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. Thus, the disturbances in mitochondrial potential and the changes in Ca2+ handling were dependent on VIA iPLA2 activity. Reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate and Ca2+ retention capacity might result in increased vulnerability of mitochondria to the Ca2+ overload and in disturbed cellular Ca2+ signaling during INAD. For VIA iPLA2, non-canonical functions beyond sole phospholipid turnover seem to be important, such as regulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry in cells. Thus, our findings bring new insight into molecular mechanism affected in INAD and highlight the non-canonical function of VIA iPLA2 in regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling.HighlightsChanges in mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in INAD mouse model are studied.Mitochondrial potential in mouse with Pla2g6 hypomorph mutation is reduced.Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate and Ca2+ retention capacity (CRC) are reduced.Disturbances in Ca2+ handling by mitochondria depend on VIA iPLA2 enzyme activity.We highlight role of iPLA2 in mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis in neurodegeneration.

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